The title page should:
- present a title that includes, if appropriate, the research design or for non-research studies: a description of what the article reports
- list the full names and institutional addresses for all authors
- if a collaboration group should be listed as an author, please list the group name as an author and include the names of the individual members of the group in the “Acknowledgements” section in accordance with the instructions below
- Large Language Models (LLMs), such as ChatGPT, do not currently satisfy our authorship criteria. Notably an attribution of authorship carries with it accountability for the work, which cannot be effectively applied to LLMs. Use of an LLM should be properly documented in the Methods section (and if a Methods section is not available, in a suitable alternative part) of the manuscript
- indicate the corresponding author
The abstract should briefly summarize the aim, findings or purpose of the article. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract.
Each manuscript must include a graphical abstract for the Table of Contents and the same may also appear along with the abstract. The graphic should capture the reader’s attention and give the reader a visual summary of the essence of the paper. Labels and numbers within the graphic must be legible at publication size. It must be entirely original and unpublished artwork created by authors. Color graphics are highly encouraged. The size of the graphic should be at least 8 cm in width and 4 cm in height (8 cm × 4 cm). The resolution of the figure should be at least 600 dpi. The abstract images should be uploaded as a JPEG, PNG or SVG file and please note that images must comply with Springer Open copyright policy.
Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article.
This should contain the body of the article, and may also be broken into subsections with short, informative headings.
List of abbreviations
If abbreviations are used in the text they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations should be provided.