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Table 6 Results of the gravity model for all first-place applications to higher education institutions (2011–2017)

From: The role of higher education in spatial mobility

Variables Coefficients 2011 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Panel model Relative
(2011-2017) importance
\(I_{j,t}\) \(\beta _1\) 2.038 1.671 2.798 1.081 1.367 0.716 1.462 21.27%
\(I_{m,t}\) \(\beta _2\) 2.938 2.719 2.882 2.974 2.442 2.828 2.814 39.82%
\(UR_{j,t}\) \(\beta _3\) 0.099 0.677 0.509 1.126 0,750 1.141 0.808 10.15%
\(UR_{m,t}\) \(\beta _4\) \(-\)0.448 \(-\)0.192 \(-\)0.430 \(-\)0.580 \(-\)0.678 \(-\)1.814 \(-\)1.257 16.34%
\(d_{j,m}\) \(\beta _5\) \(-\)0.457 \(-\)0.596 \(-\)0.619 \(-\)0.688 \(-\)0.701 \(-\)0.724 \(-\)0.667 9.20%
\(RANK_{m,t}\) \(\beta _6\) \(-\)0.428 \(-\)0.386 \(-\)0.278 \(-\)0.138 \(-\)0.107 \(-\)0.095 \(-\).241 3.22%
  \(R^2\) 0.872 0.847 0.729 0.682 0.539 0.730 0.663 100.00%
  \({\overline{R}}^2\) 0.871 0.846 0.728 0.682 0.539 0.730 0.663 100.00%