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Table 8 “Holding and conduit” companies of top three jurisdictions

From: Identification of key companies for international profit shifting in the Global Ownership Network

The United States The United Kingdom China
NL 12% GB 11% HK 12%
US 12% NL 9% CN 9%
GB 9% DE 9% VG 9%
DE 7% US 8% KY 8%
ES 7% ES 6% US 8%
  1. NL is the Netherlands; GB is the UK; DE is Germany; ES is Spain; HK is Hong Kong; CN is mainland China; VG is the British Virgin Islands; and KY is the Cayman Islands