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Table 3 Direct shareholders and subsidiaries of the “holding” companies

From: Identification of key companies for international profit shifting in the Global Ownership Network

the Netherlands the United States the United Kingdom
Subsidiary Shareholder Subsidiary Shareholder Subsidiary Shareholder
IE 9% US 35% CA 18% GB 14% US 15% US 34%
US 8% GB 11% GB 13% CA 12% ZA 5% n.a. 16%
n.a. 7% FR 10% IE 5% JP 12% IN 5% FR 7%
DE 7% DE 6% JP 4% DE 10% NL 4% CH 4%
FR 6% CH 4% MX 4% FR 8% IE 3% DE 4%
  1. IE is Ireland; DE is Germany; FR is France; GB is the UK; CH is Switzerland; CA is Canada; JP is Japan; MX is Mexico; ZA is South Africa; IN is India; NL is the Netherlands; and n.a. is no information