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Table 4 Communities and landmarks in periods GI - GIV

From: Network cartography of university students’ knowledge landscapes about the history of science: landmarks and thematic communities

GI (1572–1848) GII (1704–1900) GIII (1789–1914) GIV (1848–1928)
% Landmark % Landmark % Landmark % Landmark
Community A (6.4)   Community E (4.2)   Community I (4.4)   Community M (3.5)  
6.5 Newton 5.2 Faraday 8.3 Faraday 7.1 Quant mech
4.1 Galileo 4.1 Electr curr 5.3 Electromagn 6.8 Planck
3.1 Empir meth 3.4 Ampere 4.7 Ampere 5.9 de Broglie
3.1 Scientfc revol 3.2 Volta pile 4.4 Electr curr 5.6 Bohr
3.0 Heliocntr wv 3.2 Volta 4.3 Oersted 4.9 Schrodinger
2.8 Kepler 3.2 Franklin 4.2 Volta pile 4.5 Born
2.7 Telescope 3.1 Electromagn 3.8 Galvanomtr 4.3 Heisenberg
Community B (1.1)   Community F (3.3)   Community J (1.7)   Community N (2.3)  
9.5 French revol 10.9 French revol 10.3 Maxwell 12.7 WW I
8.3 Voltaire 4.8 Marx 6.4 Einstein 2.7 Arms race
3.6 Rousseau 4.3 Voltaire 5.7 von Laue 2.4 Versail trt
3.4 Marx 3.4 Rousseau 5.1 emg radiat 2.4 vHindenburg
3.1 Liberalism 3.2 Febr revol 4.9 S thr relat 2.1 France
2.8 Encycloped 2.9 Vienna cng 4.5 Field 2.1 Tank
2.6 Human rights 2.6 Encycloped 3.9 Maxwell eqs 2.0 Assasint FrFr
Community C (1.0)   Community G (1.9)   Community K (1.7)   Community O (1.9)  
5.1 Faraday 9.2 Steam engn 8.8 French revol 16.7 Einstein
3.7 Electric curr 9.1 Industr revol 7.1 Napoleon I 6.4 Energy
3.6 Ampere 6.3 Steam car 3.7 Gauss 4.7 G thr relat
3.3 Volta pile 5.0 Watt 3.5 Finnish war 4.6 S thr relat
3.2 Volta 3.6 Newcomen 3.5 Napolnc wars 4.1 Photoel eff
3.0 Electromagn 3.5 Spinning J 3.1 Vienna cng 4.1 Mass-E eqv
2.9 Battery 3.4 Steam ship 2.6 Trafalgar btl 3.3 Fission
Community D (0.9)   Community H (0.9)   Community L (1.2)   Community P (1.7)  
6.7 Steam engine 18.7 Napoleon I 10.8 Nobel price 8.0 Nobel prize
5.2 Industr revol 10.2 Napolnc wars 6.8 X-rays 7.4 von Laue
3.6 Steam car 7.9 Trafalgar btl 6.2 M. Curie 5.9 emg radiation
3.1 Watt 6.1 Finnish war 5.5 Roentgen 5.8 X-ray crystlgr
2.5 Steam ship 4.2 Alexander I 4.5 Becquerel 4.4 X-rays
2.5 Spinning J 4.0 Waterloo btl 4.0 P. Curie 3.3 M. Curie
2.3 Newcomen 3.3 Battles 3.6 Nernst 2.9 Roentgen
  1. For each period, the four most extensive communities (in total 16, from A to P) are listed, with sum \(\sum K\) of Katz centrality of all nodes contained in it given in parenthesis. For each community A-P, the seven highest ranking landmarks are given, with % indicating its contribution or relative Katz centrality within the community
  2. The colligatory concepts of history are shown in boldface and persons in italics