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Table 1 Estimated reproduction number (and dampening factors) of online hate speech using the IDEA model described by Fisman et al. (2013) and adapted by Cinelli et al. (2020) for social media infodemics

From: Characterizing network dynamics of online hate communities around the COVID-19 pandemic

Country Threshold \(R_0\) d
US 50% threshold 1.4380 0.0036
Top quartile 2.0421 0.0075
Median threshold 2.1120 0.0079
Philippines 50% threshold 1.5069 0.0041
Top quartile 2.1061 0.0079
Median threshold 2.1593 0.0082
  1. Similar levels are detected for both the US and the Philippines across different hate speech classification thresholds