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Table 3 Pooled SAOM to investigate international migration flows by the global South/North divide (1990–2015)

From: Global dynamics of international migration systems across South–South, North–North, and North–South flows, 1990–2015

  North–North networks South–South networks North–South networks
Estimate (S.E.) Estimate (S.E.) Estimate (S.E.)
Rate parameters
 Period 1 4.116
(0.436)
18.569
(0.700)
10.324
(0.442)
 Period 2 5.533
(0.562)
18.120
(0.701)
9.324
(0.418)
 Period 3 4.088
(0.439)
10.557
(0.405)
5.011
(0.249)
 Period 4 4.383
(0.468)
12.605
(0.484)
5.272
(0.256)
Network endogenous effects
 Outdegree − 4.280***
(0.377)
− 2.557***
(0.156)
− 4.815***
(0.106)
 Reciprocity 2.787***
(0.235)
3.101***
(0.106)
1.955***
(0.055)
 Transitive triads (030T) 0.120***
(0.021)
0.053***
(0.003)
 Transitive recipr. triads (120C) − 0.108***
(0.032)
− 0.037***
(0.005)
 Cyclic triads (030C) 0.004
(0.042)
0.026***
(0.007)
 GWDSP mixed-star − 0.078***
(0.010)
 GWDSP in-star 0.053***
(0.008)
 Indegree—popularity (sqrt) 0.852***
(0.141)
0.600***
(0.032)
0.520***
(0.028)
 Outdegree—popularity (sqrt) − 0.717***
(0.180)
− 0.883***
(0.050)
− 0.154***
(0.032)
 Outdegree—activity (sqrt) 0.236***
(0.051)
0.099***
(0.015)
0.222***
(0.012)
MST linkages
 Common language 0.785***
(0.208)
0.335***
(0.035)
0.607***
(0.058)
 Contiguous border 0.960***
(0.169)
1.688***
(0.204)
1.235***
(0.292)
 Same region 0.107
(0.111)
0.603***
(0.045)
1.052***
(0.103)
 Shared IGO 0.137
(0.124)
0.371***
(0.051)
0.288***
(0.095)
 GDP—inflows − 0.028
(0.044)
0.142***
(0.018)
− 0.004
(0.020)
 GDP—outflows 0.029
(0.041)
− 0.170***
(0.021)
− 0.027
(0.019)
Other controls
 Old age dependency—inflows 0.009
(0.010)
0.002
(0.006)
0.003
(0.004)
 Old age dependency—outflows − 0.026***
(0.009)
− 0.015**
(0.006)
− 0.015***
(0.004)
 Population—inflows 0.181**
(0.077)
0.055***
(0.015)
0.092***
(0.019)
 Population—outflows 0.122
(0.063)
0.037**
(0.015)
0.162***
(0.018)
 Coups—inflows 0.632
(− 2.634)
− 0.636***
(0.148)
0.233
(0.298)
 Coups—outflows − 1.651
(2.524)
0.146
(0.142)
− 0.017
(0.205)
Goodness of fit
 Indegree or inflows 0.896 0 0.044
 Outdegree or outflows 0.067 0.026 0
  1. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001 (two-tailed tests)