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Table 1 Experimental data sources for concentrations and related literature in AD. The concentrations parameters of individual genes involved in the cellular pathways of Alzheimer’s disease were adapted from experimental studies listed here.

From: Computational modelling of TNFα related pathways regulated by neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in neurodegeneration

Protein/gene Experiment Region Model Concentration References
Control Diseased
TNFα EIA assay CSF Humans 22.3 + 9.5 pg/ml 96.3 + 9.1 pg/ml (Mogi et al. 1994)
Tau Sandwich ELISA CSF Human (in vitro) 288 ± 160 pg/mL 728 ± 432 pg/mL (Kester et al. 2009)
Aβ42 Sandwich ELISA CSF Human (in vitro) 845 ± 222 pg/mL 459 ± 170 pg/mL (Kester et al. 2009)
Calcium Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP MS) Serum Human (in vitro) 7.2 ± 2.6 μg/L 8.1 ± 2.1 μg/L (Paglia et al. 2016)
APP SDS PAGE followed by western blotting and densitometric scanning Hippocampus Human (in vitro) 0.98 ± 0.32 per 5.0 μg protein 1.92 ± 0.57 per 5.0 μg protein (Davidsson et al. 2001)
αS Newly developed bead based xMAP technology assay CSF Human (in vitro) 67 ng/L 94 ng/L (Hansson et al. 2014)
IL-6 Commercial plate-based ELISA Plasma Human (in vitro) 1.622 ± 0.806 pg/mL 2.343 ± 1.379 pg/mL (Wu et al. 2015)
NOS Assayed by measuring conversion of arginine to citrulline Microvessels Human (in vitro) 10.0 ± 2.4 nmol/min/mg 44.7 ± 5.5 nmol/min/mg (Dorheim et al. 1994)
GSK-3 EIA assay Post Synaptosomal supernatant Human (in vitro) 156.41 ± 12.07 pmol phosphate incorporated/mg protein/min 160.78 ± 29.6 pmol phosphate incorporated /mg protein/min (Pei et al. 1997)