Skip to main content

Table 1 Description of the data used to estimate the transnational cigarette trafficking network, 2008–2017

From: Modeling the structure and dynamics of transnational illicit networks: an application to cigarette trafficking

VariableSourceMeanSt. Dev.MinMaxN
Illicit cigarette consumptionAuthors’ elaborations of EPS and legal registered production data67.8 mn sticks348.6 mn1530 Spanish illicit sticks smoked in Bulgaria in 20158.8 bn Polish illicit sticks smoked in Germany in 20139059
‘Unknown-origin’ seizuresAuthors’ data collection from open sources9.6 mn sticks58.9 mn60 sticks seized in 2010 while flowing from North Macedonia to Bulgaria1.6 bn sticks seized in 2017 while flowing from Tunisia to Libya930
‘Known-origin’ seizuresAuthors’ data collection from open sources7.1 mn sticks52.3 mn120 Greek sticks seized in 2017 while flowing from Greece to North Macedonia1.2 bn Chinese sticks seized in 2011 while flowing from the Netherlands to Germany584
Geographical distanceMayer and Zignago 20118430.2 km4663.6 km72.7 km between Israel and Palestine19,781 km between Taiwan and Paraguay47,742
  1. Note: for illicit consumption and seizure data, descriptive statistics exclude all the 0 values, which were attributed to observations with no estimated illicit consumption or no evidence of seizure