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Table 1 Social interaction of the eight swarm intelligence categories as organized by Mamei et al. (Mamei et al. 2006)

From: Uncovering the social interaction network in swarm intelligence algorithms

Name Inspiration Heuristic Communication Social interaction Example
Quorum Bacteria Decision-making Direct Triggered based on the passively perceived current arrangement of their local environment BSO (Ali and Abd-Elazim 2012)
Embryogenesis Cells (Lawrence 1992) Self-assembling Direct Triggered based on the passively perceived markers of social interaction diffused in the environment GSO (Krishnanand and Ghose 2005)
Molding Slime mold amoebas (Schmickl and Crailsheim 2007) Swarm coordinated aggregation Direct Passively perceived markers of social interaction they diffuse in the environment Graduate Routing (Poor 2001)
Flocking Birds (Kennedy and Eberhart 2001) Swarm coordinated motion Direct Continuously self-propel based on the current arrangement of their passively perceived environment PSO (Kennedy and Eberhart 1995)
Brood sorting Worker ants (Bonabeau et al. 1999) Sorting of items Indirect Triggered based on the actively found current arrangement of their local environment SMOA (Monismith and Mayfield 2008)
Nest Building Termites (Dynamic Concepts 2014) Coordinated construction of complex structures Indirect Triggered based on the actively found markers of social interaction left in the environment MBO (Abbass 2001)
Foraging Ants (Bonabeau et al. 1999) Coordinated exploration of the environment Indirect Continuously self-propel based on the actively found markers of social reinforcement left in the environment ACO (Dorigo and Di Caro 1999)
Web Weaving Spiders (Bourjot et al. 2003) Coordinated construction of complex structures Indirect Continuously self-propel based on the actively found current arrangement of their local environment RIO (Havens et al. 2008)