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Table 3 Here we assign municipalities randomly to 62 cities in five successive placebo cases and replicate the last regression (column 5) of the previous tables in each case

From: Commuting times and the mobilisation of skills in emergent cities

Variables (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Log complexity potential 0.003 0.007 0.010 0.004 0.019*
  (0.009) (0.008) (0.010) (0.008) (0.010)
Log working age pop 2008 -0.002 -0.004 -0.000 0.000 -0.006
  (0.006) (0.006) (0.007) (0.004) (0.006)
Log GDP per capita 2011 0.010 -0.008 0.003 0.005 -0.004
  (0.010) (0.007) (0.019) (0.009) (0.016)
Binary oil: one well/1000 0.011 0.012 0.005 -0.004 0.002
  (0.014) (0.013) (0.031) (0.022) (0.019)
Govt spending pc 0.030 0.007 0.017 0.019 0.027
  (0.021) (0.016) (0.017) (0.017) (0.017)
Sectoral demand 2.152** 0.841 1.496* 1.149* 1.828
  (0.809) (0.636) (0.857) (0.638) (1.434)
Formality rate 2008 -0.450* -0.055 -0.335 -0.145 -0.388
  (0.250) (0.223) (0.275) (0.203) (0.409)
Constant -0.059 0.150 0.023 -0.038 0.172
  (0.146) (0.126) (0.221) (0.122) (0.199)
Observations 62 61 61 62 61
R-squared 0.453 0.258 0.310 0.451 0.413
Robust standard errors in parentheses
*** p <0.01, ** p <0.05, * p <0.1
  1. The relevant coefficient is low and not significant