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Table 1 This set of regressions explores the determinants of the change of the formal occupation rate between 2008-2013 for a set of 96 single-municipality cities

From: Commuting times and the mobilisation of skills in emergent cities

VARIABLES (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Log complexity potential 0.036*** 0.039*** 0.033*** 0.028** 0.033***
  (0.012) (0.012) (0.011) (0.012) (0.011)
Log working age pop 2008 -0.004 -0.004 -0.002 -0.005 -0.003
  (0.004) (0.004) (0.004) (0.004) (0.004)
Log GDP per capita 2011 0.008 -0.014* -0.000 0.001 -0.014*
  (0.009) (0.007) (0.009) (0.008) (0.007)
Binary oil: one well/1000   0.077***    0.054**
   (0.026)    (0.022)
Govt spending pc    0.029**   0.015
    (0.013)   (0.010)
Sectoral demand     1.340*** 0.484
     (0.467) (0.515)
Formality rate 2008 0.097 0.131 0.108 -0.217* 0.013
  (0.084) (0.083) (0.084) (0.123) (0.150)
Constant 0.110 0.310*** 0.131 0.153 0.277***
  (0.104) (0.107) (0.109) (0.107) (0.102)
Observations 96 96 95 96 95
R-squared 0.309 0.435 0.382 0.390 0.463
  1. The results show a consistent positive relationship between complexity potential - the proximity of a city to potential complex industries - and the change of formality, controlling for relevant factors. Several exogenous shocks also influence formal employment