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Table 1 Example pipeline of data processing from raw patient-physician encounter records to referral paths and edges of referral network

From: Referral paths in the U.S. physician network

(a) Raw visiting records
Patient Physician date;HRR;HRRcity;state;zipcode;workRVU;specialty;PHN;teaching type; etc.
α A 2011-01-01;1010;Hanover;NH;03755;1.0;family practice;First hospital;0;etc.
α B 2011-01-10;1020;Boston;MA;02101;3.0;internal medicine;Second hospital;1; etc.
α C 2011-02-01;1050;New York;NY;10021;4.0;cardiology;Third hospital;1;etc.
β B 2011-03-01;1012;Lebanon;NH;03784;2.0;family practice;Fourth hospital;0;etc.
β C 2011-03-20;1022;Newton;MA;02461;5.0;vascular surgery;Fifth hospital;1; etc.
(b) Referral path
Patient   Node(date;#visiting records; RVU),divided by "->"
α   A(2011-01-01;1.0,1.0)->B(2011-01-10;1.0;3.0)->C(2011-02-01;1.0;4.0)
β   B(2011-03-01;1.0;2.0)->C(2011-03-20;1.0;5.0)
(c) Edges in the national referral network with the weights over all referral paths
Directed edge   Weights of an edge
A->B   3; 4; 4.82; 12.14; 23.42
B->C   5; 5; 5.12; 12.32; 18.22